Sunday, May 24, 2020
Femme Fatale Since the beginning of recorded history we have been held to witness the influence of women and their sexuality on mankind. As sexual creatures, humans desire each other; generally men are more inclined to be seen as the ones who Ã¢â¬Å"needÃ¢â¬ the physical sexual act. This Ã¢â¬Å"needÃ¢â¬ that men have gives women an important power and opportunity over men. By controlling sex women can basically rule the world. This idea tends to scare men because men like to be the ones in control, but at the same time this thought of powerful dominating women is a sexual turn on. These natural curiosities we all have with our bodies, and fantasies we create, led to the eventual naming of this phenomenon as the Femme Fatale, coined by the French. PriorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The artists and their works, which I stated before, are Kirchner with his piece Street, Berlin, Beardsley, with his drawing Salome with the Head of John the Baptist, and Munch with his work Vampire. Before we can address how they compare with each other we must first recognize the formal elements in general for each. Ernst Ludwig KirchnerÃ¢â¬â¢s painting Street, Berlin is exactly what the title suggests a street in the city of Berlin. The composition is busy. The general arrangement of the work is crowded figures in the middle ground with very little background and foreground. There are several figures which seem unimportant. The ones of importance seem to be the two women walking, although more focused on one of the women than the other, and the man crouching down in front of the window. The objects that seem to be most important are the ones that are painted more colorful, the woman of focus is the only person wearing color, and the rest are in all black and white attire. Kirchner attempts to create an illusion of three dimensional space by using a one point perspective which draws us into the work like we are looking down the sidewalk with all these people walking toward us, interestingly he does not really attempt to make the figures three dimensional they are pretty muchShow MoreRelatedFe mme Fatale : An Overview1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Femme fatale. Every culture has a mystical femme fatale that is known for being beautiful, enticing and deadly. A female being that has the ability to entice a man with the intent to destroy his very being. The Mermaids, Nymphs, Undines and Sirens, these beautiful and deadly creatures are known all over the world. The alluring charms of these creatures are legendary and have been known globally for centuries. The femme fatale is known for being able to charm and lure wayward men for safety intoRead MoreFemme Fatale in Film Noir2241 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesa post war society characterised by insecurity about gender roles, the economy, changing definitions of race, and nuclear technology. One of the cultural problems the term genre attempts to address is the gender question. The familiarity of the femme fatale character across film noir is the predominant cause for discussion amongst feminist theorists. Feminist theorists became, and s till remain, interested in the womans portrayal in noir because the majority of quintessential film noirs were manufacturedRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Femme Fatale734 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessuspicious call. When confronted, she lies once again, and tries to act as a helpless woman- crying, in need of a strong male to rescue her. All these actions, portray Evelyn as a true femme fatale. The key difference EvelynÃ¢â¬â¢s character receives that a true femme fatale lacks is sympathy from the audience. The femme fatale doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a moral code. She is selfish, ruthless, and only thinks about herself. But as the audience finds out at the end, though Evelyn is ruthless, she is not selfish. It is finallyRead MoreElizabeth Siddal And The Femme Fatale901 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmanifested many of the demonized figure imagery, the Ã¢â¬Å"femme fatalÃ¢â¬ , in his art and to a certain extent, we could see that he was not free from the memory of his wronged wife. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that many male artists depicted the female body imagery in two categories, which are either the idealised, Ã¢â¬Å"the museÃ¢â¬ or the cult of feminine beauty, Ã¢â¬Å"the femme fatale.Ã¢â¬ Those binary structured perception between the muse and the femme fatale have a strong relationship with the manÃ¢â¬â¢s agony and anxietyRead MoreFemme Fatales of English Literature3740 W ords Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe femme fatale, a seductive woman who entices men into perilous and compromising positions by way of charisma and mystery, is a classic, and often enthralling, character who can be found in many sources of literature and mythology of various origins and eras (Femme Fatale 1). If the goddess of virtue is a lily and the vamp is an overripe red rose, the femme fatale is a Venus flytrap. (Billinghurst 1). In the simple quote above, Ms. Jane Billinghurst, author of Temptress, provides explanationRead MoreEssay about Femme Fatales of English Literature3625 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pages Femme Fatales of English Literature The femme fatale, a seductive woman who entices men into perilous and compromising positions by way of charisma and mystery, is a classic, and often enthralling, character who can be found in many sources of literature and mythology of various origins and eras (Ã¢â¬Å"Femme FataleÃ¢â¬ 1). Ã¢â¬Å"If the goddess of virtue is a lily and the vamp is an overripe red rose, the femme fatale is a Venus flytrap.Ã¢â¬ (Billinghurst 1). In the simple quote above, Ms. Jane BillinghurstRead MoreFemme Fatale - Original Writing1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMakeda Scott Mr. Halter Composition I 06 October 2015 Femme Fatale Pink lips. Long nails. Extravagant jewelry. Flirty dresses. High heels. These are some of the typical things your average femme lesbian prides herself on. These are some of the things I pride myself on. My appearance constitutes a large part of my identity and self image. I am your standard girl next-door, except, I am not waiting on that handsome athletic jock to hit on me, I m waiting on the other girlRead MoreMisinterpreting Women in Film Preserves a Stereotypical Patriarchal Society564 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessociety. It is imperative to reinterpret and analyse the implicit psychosocial portrayal of female characters in film noir. The disregard of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality alongside males imposing their lust and anxiety on women has created the notion of the Ã¢â¬Å"femme fataleÃ¢â¬ . The term connotes that such women are unorthodox, through their radical desires and aspirations, has led to the emphasis of sensuality which jeopardizes traditional hierarchy. The intransigence of gender roles results in dissension of the intricacyRead MoreEnchantment in John Keats La Belle Dame Sans Merica599 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesimagination she brings to him. Sadly, the knight cannot live in such a realm of dream state but refuses to accept his fate. Thus, refusing to let go of these pleasures destroys his position in the real world. The lady can be categorized as a Ã¢â¬Å"femme fatale.Ã¢â¬ She leaves a trail of Ã¢â¬Å"pale menÃ¢â¬ through her seduction and destruction. The Ã¢â¬Å"pale menÃ¢â¬ have Ã¢â¬Å"lips starved in the gloam,Ã¢â¬ which suggests that the dames enchanted food induces starvation rather than nourishment. A shift of dominance occurs afterRead MoreThe Gritty World Of Crime Fiction1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesextended toward the females in the genre. In the mind of both the authors and readers, there is a black and white view of women and how they should represent their sexuality. The first archetypal woman that most associate with this genre is the femme fatale, a woman who, according to Hard-Boiled Ideology, is an Ã¢â¬Å"aggressive, sexually avaricious, and dangerousÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"are perceived at first ... to be highly desirable, and are later discovered to be perverted and immoralÃ¢â¬ (Ogdon). An example of this can
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Monuments preserve a memory that serves as a reminder of a significant event or person. The Statue of Liberty, the Washington Monument, Bunker Hill MonumentÃ¢â¬â these structures honor and immortalize remarkable occurrences in history, people, or concepts; and when it is time to construct a monument, many aspects of the established memorial need to be planned. Factors a group or agency should consider when memorializing an event or person and in creating a monument is the location, which should be in the area that was most significant to the person or event. When memorials are placed in an inappropriate spot, the message is skewed, and there seems to be of little relevance if the monument is not where the impact was most prominent. You wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hence, agencies or groups should consider location when memorializing an event or person and when constructing a monument because the place can be improper in regards to the history of the memorial; that is why, w ith the Holocaust museum, many were outraged because it was going to be in a location that Ã¢â¬Å"did little to stop the Holocaust from occurring.Ã¢â¬ In Source A, it states, Ã¢â¬Å"communities . . . come together in an act of [viewing] a holy site, [and] seeing as relic.Ã¢â¬ In context, the article illustrates the magnificence of seeing monuments, for it offers Ã¢â¬Å"an . . . experience: a faceÃ¢â¬âtoÃ¢â¬âface encounter in a specifically valued place.Ã¢â¬ When memorializing a person or event, and when constructing the monument itself, Source A clearly demonstrates that the location is similar to observing a Ã¢â¬Å"holy site,Ã¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"relic.Ã¢â¬ The place is incredibly important when considering memorializing something, for merely making a trip to the memorial is Ã¢â¬Å"extraordinary,Ã¢â¬ and incredible to Ã¢â¬Å"encounter . . . in a specifically valued place.Ã¢â¬ To reword, location is a factor of memorializing an event or person and when constructing the monument that should be considered because it amplifies the experience, for the author of Source A conveys it to be like Ã¢â¬Å"[viewing] a holy s ite,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"seeing a relicÃ¢â¬ in a Ã¢â¬Å"valued place.Ã¢â¬ Another reason why location should be considered when memorializing an event or person, and when constructing the monument, is because location is critical for the monumentÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedThe Statue Of Liberty936 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout centuries, architecture and monuments have given America the name it has today. Some of the oldest forms of art made on American soil hundreds of years ago are what is cherished dearly today. There are over a hundred different statues alone in the US that near and dear to us all but thousands forms of art that makes Americans proud to be called American. United States is a place that underwent plenty of struggles and monumental milestones to make it the powerful land it has become todayRead MoreHow Acid Rain Causes Damage to Art Essay771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat is most concerning to me is--------the damage acid rain causes to works of art, like statues and buildings. Works of art have been affected by acid rain in many different ways including enviormentally and economicaly/socially. Acid rain has damaged the enviroment in different ways. The Statue of Liberty was one of the most well known and famous monuments, but today, due to acid rain the Staute of Liberty has been experiencing some diffculties with maintaining its apperance. Ã¢â¬Å"BaboianÃ¢â¬â¢s outcomeRead MoreA Work Of Art And Its Impact On Society1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesart forms in terms of influencing society is a monument, which can be defined as a large manmade structure built to commemorate a significant person or event in history. Like all forms of art, monuments tell a story. Additionally, they take art to the next level by portraying something historical. They are one of the best art forms when it comes to influencing the public, yet their cultural impact is often overlooked. Many people see a monument as a display of a person or eventÃ¢â¬â¢s importance toRead MoreA nalysis Of Kahlo, My Favorite Artist Of All Times1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvolume. VOLUME can be stimulated in a two-dimensional work such as paintings. In FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s painting My Dress Hangs there, we see both three and two dimensional volumes. A perfect example of three- dimensional volume is the image of the Washington monument. The Washington monument is in the center-top of the painting representing Americas politics. This piece of at work contains more of dimensional shapes, that individual stand out by themselves. In this painting rectangle, squares and circles dominate theRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Mr. Smith Goes To Washington995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Throughout the film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington the main character, Mr. Smith, shows his unfaltering patriotism and devotion toward being an honest man, promoting liberty and freedom. The politicians in the film seem to be the exact opposite of Mr. Smith because they forget that everything is about the people and doing what is right. Many politicians today share both the qualities of Mr. Smith as well as the other politicians, which could be improved. The story begins with a man named Sam FolleyRead MoreThe Washington Memorial Honors A Special Purpose That Symbolize Events And / Or People That Have Made An Impact1093 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMonuments and memorials serve a special purpose that symbolize events and/or people that have made an impact. The Washington Memorial honors the first president of the U.S., George Washington, the Statue of Liberty is a universal symbol of freedom, and the World Trade Center honors those who were involved in 9/11. All of these monuments and memorials are very popular; however, there is a little known architectural masterpiece called Angkor Wat or Ã¢â¬Å"temple cityÃ¢â¬ in Cambodia that is worthy of discussionRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Statue Of Liberty By Emma Lazarus1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Statue of Liberty is quite the monument, welcoming and astonishing immigrants since the year of 1876. Standing over 305 feet tall and weighing approximately 225 tons, this woman of independen ce has been the symbol of the United States for people all over the world. At the bottom of Lady Liberty, there is a poem by Emma Lazarus. It reads, Ã¢â¬Å"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossedRead More The Marine Corp Memorial Essay example1756 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesflag raising posed for the sculptor. The original statue which was cast in plaster went on display in front of the Old Navy Building in Washington D.C. from 1945-1946. It was used to promote war bonds around the country. In 1946 General Vandegrift was so moved by the statue that he had Felix de Weldon transferred from the Navy to the Marine Corps and commissioned him to produce the memorial we see today. The memorial like any other in Washington was met with controversy. The primary dispute cameRead MoreWhat is the Illuminati? The Illuminati is a secret society that was founded on May 1, 1776 . This800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIlluminati. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson appointed a freemason to design the layout of Washington D.C. The layout of the streets makes a pentagram, although the pentagram is not quite completed . The number 666, which is the number of the Beast, is suggested to be a part of the Illuminati. It is also associated with the Anti-Christ, which would eventually take over the helm of the Illuminati. Another Illuminati symbol would be the eternal flame. The Statue of Liberty is a prime exampleRead More The Statue Of Liberty Essay1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere are few objects that can be compared to the significance of the figure known as the Statue of Liberty. It is one of the greatest works of its time and still stands today as a meaningful entity of independence to the world. The statue is a great tribute to the concept of global freedom that had its roots in America. It was created to display the worldwide objective of peace and tranquility. The fact that another model of this icon stands today in a world capital shows the effect that this figure
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Write an essay on Microeconomic reform in Australia including discussion on: * The meaning of the term Ã¢â¬ËMicroeconomic reformÃ¢â¬ . * Examples of recent microeconomic reform * Possible effects of microeconomic reform in the Australian economy. Microeconomic reforms (MER) are the actions to reform particular product and factor markets with the aim of raising the economyÃ¢â¬ s long term growth rate and increasing its flexibility. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay on Microeconomic Reform in Australia or any similar topic only for you Order Now It also refers to the set of policy initiatives aimed at prompting structural change in the Australian economy so that resources can flow freely from one use to another. Any barrier to the free flow of resources in response to price signals creates inefficiencies in the economy, adding to cost. MER has many aims. Firstly it is used to improve resource allocation by maximising output of scarce resources. It is also to encourage efficient operations of markets (adoption of worldÃ¢â¬ s best practice) and encourage efficiencies-allocative (limited resources allocated to the most uses for its output to be maximised), technical (aims to produce at the scale where costs per unit are the lowest) and dynamic ( how firms achieve and maintain efficiency over time). Micro reforms refer to individual sectors within the economy. They work to improve inputs and outputs, and are tools of control in conjunction with macro policies (fiscal and monetary). MER works on supply side economics to improve productivity. This is done through govt. deregulation which improves efficiency, lowers tariffs, increases international competitiveness and through the reforms of the GBEs which lowers costs and increases competition (Hilmer report). In recent years there have been many examples of developments in MER. The last fifteen years of MER has been the crucial factor in improvements of the status of the economy on Australia especially the return to low inflation. In the product markets, MER has been reducing protection, and improving the competition policy through the introduction of the Trade Practices act (1974) and the Hilmer report in 1993, as a decrease in regulations mean increased competition. This led to privatisation and corporatisation of GBEs and deregulation. In Factor markets, such as the capital markets, deregulation occurred from the early 80s which included the deregulation of financial markets and float of the dollar (Ã¢â¬Å"83). Labour markets also went under some structural changes with the decentralisation of wage-fixing with the introduction of enterprise bargaining instead of arbitration and the end of National Wage cases in the early 90s as well as restructuring of awards. Under the Howard govt. the introduction of the WRA has brought on AWAs (individual contracts), simplification of awards and measures to reduce union power. Some deregulation has occurred through some reduction of the role of the IRC in wage fixing and industrial relations. In the public sector, the most important MER of the decade are the corporatisation and privatisation of former GBEs such as the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Qantas, Telstra (partial)(end of monopoly in 1991 and full competition in 1997) and corporatisation of Australia Post. Taxation has gone under some changes with the introduction of capital gains tax, fringe benefits tax and the possible introduction of a GST and tax indexation (linking tax brackets to inflation rates so that individuals would not be under the influence of bracket creep due to inflation. Also income tax cuts-from 60% to 47%-provide incentives to work and increase output. Welfare has also been under the influence of MERs through tightening of old age pensions and benefits through the incomes and assets test as well as the introduction of the Ã¢â¬ËWork for the DoleÃ¢â¬ scheme. The main reason for MER is to improve the over all performance of economic activity. MER must help to achieve govt. objectives as the failure of macroeconomic policy means it cannot do the job alone. It attempts to override and supplement macro by improving dynamism of productivity, efficiency and raising national income. It aims to improve the ability to absorb displaced workers and make the economy less inflation prone. Another reason for MER is to ensure efficiency for sustainable economic growth and improved living standards. The three main types of efficiency are allocative, technical and dynamic and are prerequisites for possible economic growth. Allocative efficiency is when prices reflect costs. It is the production of combination of goods and services which yields maximum efficiency. Technical efficiency involves the production of g+s at minimum average costs. This is done through the acquisition of capital and the right number of labour employed to produce at maximum efficiency without the Law of Diminishing returns kicking in, or excessive RULC. Another reason for MER is to improve competition. It puts pressure on firms to increase technical efficiency and to pass on the benefits of the improved technical efficiency in the form of lower prices to consumers. In turn, competition will improve allocative efficiency, which means resources will be allocated only to the areas which reflect consumer demand and push price down to long run average costs. The pattern is like a set of dominos, reduced allocation of resources will increase competition which puts pressure to lower prices and improve resource allocation, which in turn will increase national income and living standards. A proof of its success is the dramatic decrease of inflation in Australia from the 70s (10%) to the 80s (8%) to the 90s (2.5%). MER has many possible effects in the Australian economy, both beneficial and costing. The main advantages lie in the fact that MER increases national income by increasing national productivity and increases competition in product and factor markets. It allows easier macro management by increased competition means that less regulation make firms more flexible and dynamic and capable to respond to unfavorable shocks. More competition is encouraged by deregulation, lowering of tariffs to expose local firms to competition and deregulation of the labour market so that it is free to move to where it is most productive. The promotion of competition will hold down prices, and excessive wage rises an therefore inflation (between the RBA target of 2%-3%- currently at 1.6%). In the long run the level of real GDP will rise, more wants are being satisfied and living standards will rise. However, as always there are also costs. These include short term costs, as there is a time delay between the implementation of the short term costs for the long term (higher national income and full employment ) to kick in. Income distribution also is a victim of MER (labour market deregulation) as it favorises income distribution in favour of the rich. The answer is to supplement the distribution with re-distributive measures in the budget. MER can also conflict with other policies such a macro policies, for example in cases where short term rises in unemployment add to the budget deficit. Many say that the aim of MER is to rise competition and therefore reduce the CAD but this cant happen. This is because the increase in national income unfortunately doesnÃ¢â¬ t increase the level of national savings but of spending because of higher wages and purchasing power. Therefore the Exchange rate will appreciate and the CAD will tend to worsen. How to cite Essay on Microeconomic Reform in Australia, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss the use of statistics and the concepts required in the job and educational requirements for this job. Answer: A biostatistician was interviewed to get an idea about the use of statistics in his field. He had joined a company as a biostatistician recently. He wished to survive through this job before pursuing doctorate in biostatistics. The following interview questions were asked to him and his responses were as follows: Use of statistics and the concepts required in the job Biostatistics is the subject where biological events and factors are analysed statistically. Various statistical methods are also used to design different kinds of biological experiments in medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc. Descriptive statistical methods like mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and variance, coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis are used to analyse the biological data initially and find out the basic qualities of the data. Statistical charts are also used to know the measures of dispersion and central tendency of the data. Designing of models with the biological data are an important part of biostatistics (Forthofer Lee, 2014). Designing models helps to know the form of the data and the influence of factors on each other. ANOVA, ANCOVA, etc. models are used to design the data and analyse them. Fitting of the model is an important part of biostatistics. The fitted model would help to predict the future values of the biological events. Example of the use of statistics and its usefulness in improving a practice or service. An experiment was conducted to know how the occurrence of certain disease does is influenced by the lifestyle, blood group and previous history of the disease. A survey was conducted to know about the patients having the specific disease or those who had the disease. The data was collected from various hospital records. Descriptive analysis was initially done on this data to know about the basic qualities of the data (Kramer 2012). Hypothesis was set accordingly to justify the desired problem. Hypothesis testing and statistical tests like f-test, t-test and ANOVA would be done accordingly and conclusions would be drawn to identify the influencing factors. This would help to develop the medicines and treat the patients in future. Educational requirements for this job (statistical and other requirements) Basic knowledge about statistics is required to get a job of biostatistician. Knowing the basics of probability and statistics and the methods of testing and inference would help to land in such a job. Knowing the biology well is a very important criterion to be a biostatistician. One should have a postgraduate degree in biology and he should have special paper as statistics and probability in his post graduation to be a biostatistician (Motulsky, 2013). Recommendation to study statistics by today's college students It is recommended to study statistics by the college student in todays world. This is because statistics is used widely in every field in modern days world. It helps to predict the future by analysing the past data. This would help to predict a better future and eradicate the past issues (Wassertheil-Smoller, 2013). From the interview, a vast knowledge on the methods of application of statistics in biology could be known. The most interesting and surprising part of the interview was that statistics was widely used in biology. References Forthofer, R. N., Lee, E. S. (2014).Biostatistics: A Guide to Design, Analysis and Discovery. Elsevier. Kramer, M. S. (2012).Clinical epidemiology and biostatistics: a primer for clinical investigators and decision-makers. Springer Science Business Media. Motulsky, H. (2013).Intuitive biostatistics: a nonmathematical guide to statistical thinking. Oxford University Press, USA. Wassertheil-Smoller, S. (2013).Biostatistics and epidemiology: a primer for health professionals. Springer Science Business Media.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
U.S. Budget Deficit - Good or Bad? ?Spending financed not by current tax receipts, but by borrowing or drawing upon past tax reserves.? , Is it a good idea? Why does the U.S. run a deficit? Since 1980 the deficit has grown enormously. Some say its a bad thing, and predict impending doom, others say it is a safe and stable necessity to maintain a healthy economy. When the U.S. government came into existence and for about a 150 years thereafter the government managed to keep a balanced budget. The only times a budget deficit existed during these first 150 years were in times of war or other catastrophic events. The Government, for inezce, generated deficits during the War of 1812, the recession of 1837, the Civil War, the depression of the 1890s, and World War I. However, as soon as the war ended the deficit would be eliminated and the economy which was much larger than the amounted debt would quickly absorb it. The last time the budget ran a surplus was in 1969 during Nixon's presidency. Budget deficits have grown larger and more frequent in the last half-century. In the 1980s they soared to record levels. The Government cut income tax rates, greatly increased defense spending, and didn't cut domestic spending enough to make up the difference. Also, the deep recession of the early 1980s reduced revenues, raising the deficit and forcing the Government to spend much more on paying interest for the national debt at a time when interest rates were high. As a result, the national debt grew in size after 1980. It grew from $709 billion to $3.6 trillion in 1990, only one decade later. Increase of National Debt Since 1980 Month Amount -------------------------------------------- 12/31/1980 $930,210,000,000.00 * 12/31/1981 $1,028,729,000,000.00 * 12/31/1982 $1,197,073,000,000.00 * 12/31/1983 $1,410,702,000,000.00 * 12/31/1984 $1,662,966,000,000.00 * 12/31/1985 $1,945,941,616,459.88 12/31/1986 $2,214,834,532,586.43 12/31/1987 $2,431,715,264,976.86 12/30/1988 $2,684,391,916,571.41 12/29/1989 $2,952,994,244,624.71 12/31/1990 $3,364,820,230,276.86 12/31/1991 $3,801,698,272,862.02 12/31/1992 $4,177,009,244,468.77 12/31/1993 $4,535,687,054,406.14 12/30/1994 $4,800,149,946,143.75 10/31/1995 $4,985,262,110,021.06 11/30/1995 $4,989,329,926,644.31 12/29/1995 $4,988,664,979,014.54 01/31/1996 $4,987,436,358,165.20 02/29/1996 $5,017,040,703,255.02 03/29/1996 $5,117,786,366,014.56 04/30/1996 $5,102,048,827,234.22 05/31/1996 $5,128,508,504,892.80 06/28/1996 $5,161,075,688,140.93 07/31/1996 $5,188,888,625,925.87 08/30/1996 $5,208,303,439,417.93 09/30/1996 $5,224,810,939,135.73 10/01/1996 $5,234,730,786,626.50 10/02/1996 $5,235,509,457,452.56 10/03/1996 $5,222,192,137,251.62 10/04/1996 $5,222,049,625,819.53 * Rounded to Millions Federal spending has grown over the years, especially starting in the 1930s in actual dollars and in proportion to the economy (Gross Domestic Product, or GDP). Beginning with the "New Deal" in the 1930s, the Federal Government came to play a much larger role in American life. President Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to use the full powers of his office to end the Great Depression. He and Congress greatly expanded Federal programs. Federal spending, which totaled less than $4 billion in 1931, went up to nearly $7 billion in 1934 and to over $8 billion in 1936. Then, U.S. entry into World War II sent annual Federal spending soaring to over $91 billion by 1944. Thus began the ever increasing debt of the United States. What if the debt is not increasing as fast as we think it is? The dollar amount of the debt may increase but often times so does the amount of money or GDP to pay for the debt. This brings up the idea that the deficit could be run without cost. How could a deficit increase productivity without any cost? The idea of having a balanced budget is challenged by the ideas of Keynesian Economics. Keynesian economics is an economic model that predicts in times of low demand and high unemployment a deficit will not cost anything. Instead a deficit would allow more people to work, increasing productivity. A deficit does this because it is invested into the economy by government. For example if the government spends deficit money on new highways, trucking will benefit and more jobs will be produced. When an economic system is in recession all of its resources are not being used. For example if the government did not build highways we could not ship goods and there would be less demand for them. The supply remains low even though we have the ability to produce more because we cannot ship them. This non-productivity comes at a cost to the whole economic system. If deficit spending eliminates non-productivity then its direct monetary cost will be offset if not surpassed by increased productivity. For example in the 1980's when the huge deficits were adding up the actual additions to the public capital or increased productivity were often as big, or bigger than
Saturday, March 7, 2020
CancelaciÃ ³n de visa por quedarse en EE.UU. ms tiempo Una de las formas ms frecuentes deÃ revocaciÃ ³n oÃ cancelaciÃ ³n una visa americana ocurre cuando un extranjero ingresa a Estados Unidos con una visa no inmigrante y prolonga su estancia ms all del tiempo de lo permitido. Asimismo, los turistas de paÃ ses incluidos en el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visados,Ã¢â¬âentre ellos Chile y EspaÃ ±aÃ¢â¬â y bajo el cual sus ciudadanos pueden ingresar a EE.UU. sin visa por un tiempo mximo de 90 dÃ as, pierden este privilegio si exceden su estadÃ a ms all de esos tres meses. RevocaciÃ ³n visa por estancia ilegal en EE.UU. La presencia en EE.UU. ms all del tiempo permitido provoca cancelaciÃ ³n/revocaciÃ ³n visa. Adems, los turistas que ingresaron sin visa pierden ese derecho.Otras consecuencias:posible expulsiÃ ³n o deportaciÃ ³nimposibilidad de solicitar cambio visa o extensiÃ ³nse limitan los caminos para regular la situaciÃ ³ncastigo de 3 o 10 aÃ ±os, una vez que se est fuera de EE.UU.dificultad para volver a obtener una visa americanaSegÃ ºn datos del Departamento de Seguridad Interna, segÃ ºn datos de 2017, Ã ºltimo aÃ ±o fiscal disponible, se quedaron en EE.UU. ms all del tiempo autorizado:el 0,51% de turistas que ingresaron sin visa por el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visadosel 1,91% de extranjeros que ingresaron sin visael 4,15% de extranjeros que ingresaron con visa de estudiante F-1 Consecuencias porÃ permanecer ilegalmente en Estados UnidosÃ El tiempo que un extranjero no inmigrante puede permanecer legalmente en Estados Unidos y su periodo de gracia, cuando lo hay, est determinado por el tipo de visa que utiliza para ingresar. En el caso de los turistas con una B1/B2 el tiempo mximo de estancia est determinado en el I-94, registro de ingreso y de salida. En estos casos no hay periodo de gracia pero podrÃ a calificarse para solicitar una extensiÃ ³n o, incluso, un cambio de visa. Pero si no se sale a tiempo la visa es cancelada. Por otra parte, en el caso de un turista internacional que ingresa a EE.UU. sin visa por ser de un paÃ s en el Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visas el plazo mximo de estancia es de 90 dÃ as. No es posible ni pedir extensiÃ ³n, ni cambio a otra visa. Tampoco aplica ningÃ ºn periodo de gracia. Una vez transcurrido el plazo que corresponde a cada persona segÃ ºn su tipo de visa, el extranjero se convierte en indocumentado si permanece en Estados Unidos. Es lo que se conoce en inglÃ ©s como visa overstay. Consecuentemente, podrÃ a ser expulsado o deportado, dependiendo de las circunstancias de cada caso. Sin embargo, existen excepciones como, por ejemplo, iniciar un trmite para ajuste de estatus o haber solicitado a tiempo una extensiÃ ³n o un cambio de visa.Ã Adems de la consecuencia de la posible deportaciÃ ³n, hay otras que deben ser tenidos en cuenta. En primer lugar, una vez que la visa se convierte en no vlida por haber abusado del tiempo permitido para permanecer en Estados Unidos ya no es posible pedir con Ã ©xito una extensiÃ ³n de la misma o el cambio a otraÃ Adems, es muy importante que si se est en situaciÃ ³n de indocumentado se cierran en la prctica muchas puertas a la posibilidad de obtener la tarjeta de residencia. La razÃ ³n es que no siempre es posible realizar lo que se conoce como un ajuste de estatus.Ã Por ejemplo, Antonio Alonso ingresÃ ³ a Estados Unidos con una visa de turista y se quedÃ ³ 15 meses ms all de la fecha autorizada. DespuÃ ©s se casa con Pili PÃ ©rez, una residente permanente que lo pide como esposo. Al principio las cosas van bien porque el Servicio de InmigraciÃ ³n y CiudadanÃ a aprueba la peticiÃ ³n de familiar realizada con el formulario I-130. Pero despuÃ ©s la dura realidad se impone. Antonio no puede ajustar su estatus y tiene que salir de los Estados Unidos para completar el proceso en un consulado. Y allÃ se encuentra con la negaciÃ ³n de la peticiÃ ³n de la green card y que tiene un castigo de 10 aÃ ±os por haber estado ilegalmente en los Estados Unidos. La situaciÃ ³n serÃ a diferente si Pili PÃ ©rez fuera una ciudadana estadounidense en vez de una residente permanente. Cabe destacar que la situaciÃ ³n de indocumentado limita las posibilidades para regularizarse al impedir en muchos casos el ajuste de estatus. Por eso, si se tiene ese estatus es muy importante informarse muy bien sobre si para el caso particular que le afecta a uno es posible arreglar los papeles sin salir de Estados Unidos o no. Ã ¿QuÃ © sucede cuando se sale de EE.UU. pero se ha estado ilegalmente en el paÃ s? En este caso hay que distinguir dos situaciones: En primer lugar, cuando se ha estado en situaciÃ ³n irregular en Estados Unidos por un total de menos de 180 dÃ as. En este caso es posible pedir inmediatamente una nueva visa. Pero hay que tener en cuenta que el consulado puede negarla muy fcilmente por considerar al solicitante como inelegible. Y eso es porque una de las razones por las que se puede decir no cuando se pide una visa es que el oficial consular crea que el solicitante tiene intenciÃ ³n de quedarse en Estados Unidos.Ã Si ya lo hizo una vez, Ã ¿por quÃ © no va a volver a hacerlo? Por eso que no es tan fcil volver a sacar la visa. Pero desde luego que no es imposible ya que la estancia alargada fuera de plazo pudo deberse a una situaciÃ ³n razonable que se puede probar, como por ejemplo, haber estado hospitalizado.Ã TambiÃ ©n puede ser que hayan transcurrido ya muchos aÃ ±os y la situaciÃ ³n actual del solicitante, muy asentado en su lugar de residencia, permita suponer que de esta vez no se va a quedar en los Estados Unidos ni un sÃ ³lo dÃ a ms del autorizado. Subrayar que de acuerdo a la ley, cualquier oficial consular puede denegar una visa basndose en sospecha. No necesita probar nada. Es el solicitante el que debe probar ms all de toda duda que va a cumplir las leyes migratorias. En segundo lugar, si se ha estado sin autorizaciÃ ³n en Estados Unidos por ms de 180 dÃ as aplica el castigo de los 3 o de los 10 aÃ ±os, si bien hay algunas excepciones. Este castigo implica que mientas se est cumpliendo una persona se convierte en inadmisible para ingresar a Estados Unidos. En otras palabras, mientras no cumpla su tiempo de castigo no puede pedir una visa y, si lo hace, ser negada. Sin embargo, en algunos casos extraordinarios es posible solicitar un permiso, que tambiÃ ©n se conoce como waiver or perdÃ ³n y asÃ se podrÃ a solicitar la visa antes de que transcurra todo el tiempo de castigo. Las condiciones para solicitarlo son diferentes segÃ ºn se quiera obtener una visa no inmigrante, por ejemplo la de turista, o una de inmigrante para obtener la green card, por ejemplo, en el caso de peticiÃ ³n por parte de un familiar. En todos estos casos lo recomendable es consultar con un abogado migratorio reputado. No es fcil obtener un waiver y, ni siquiera es posible sacarlo segÃ ºn como sea el caso.Ã Finalmente, si se ha cumplido el castigo de los 3 o de los 10 aÃ ±os, es posible ya solicitar una visa no inmigrante o de inmigrante porque ha desaparecido la causa que convertÃ a al extranjero en inadmisible.Ã Sin embargo, tener en cuenta que para el caso de visa no inmigrante todavÃ a es posible que el cÃ ³nsul la niegue, precisamente alegando que se es inelegible. Es muy importe en estos casos poder demostrar que no se tiene ninguna intenciÃ ³n de quedarse en los Estados Unidos ms tiempo del permitido y de que se tienen lazos econÃ ³micos y familiares fuertes en el lugar de residencia. Ã ¿CÃ ³mo se notifica la cancelaciÃ ³n de la visa? La cancelaciÃ ³n de la visa se produce automticamente. Las autoridades estadounidenses no tienen obligaciÃ ³n de comunicarlo. Lo mismo sucede con los nacionales de los paÃ ses del Programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visas. Pierden automticamente el derecho a ingresar a EE.UU. sin un visado, no siendo necesaria la comunicaciÃ ³n a la persona interesada. Consejos para evitar tener problemas con las visas americanas La visa que mayores problemas causa es la de turista. Para evitarlos es conveniente tomar este test sobre cÃ ³mo obtenerla y conservarla. Adems, no conviene abusar de las frecuencias de los ingresos. Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal para ningÃ ºn caso concreto.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Literature review of Acupuncture as an adjunct in Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal - Essay Example This study was able to establish that there was a strong consensus among clients and staff interviewed that acupuncture had a beneficial impact in terms of helping patient relax, reducing his anxiety and pain. 2. Mills, E., Wu, P., Gagnier, J., and Ebbert, J., (2005). Efficacy of acupuncture for cocaine dependence: a systematic review & meta-analysis. Harm Reduction Journal 2(4), pp. 1-6. In this paper, the authors systematically evaluated and analyzed the randomized controlled trials on acupuncture in the management of cocaine addiction. The authors were able to cover 10 databases using different inclusion criteria. All in all, the authors established that the meta-analysis does not support the use of acupuncture in the management of cocaine dependence. However, most of the trials had issues with a significant loss in their follow-up, thus lessening the impact of the inferences drawn. 3. Black, S., Carey, E., Webber, A., Neish, N., and Gilbert, R. (2011). Determining the efficacy of auricular acupuncture for reducing anxiety in patients withdrawing from psychoactive drugs. J Subst Abuse Treat., 41(3):279-87 This study hypothesized that auricular acupuncture can reduce the anxiety caused by withdrawal from psychoactive drugs. ... lar acupuncture was not more effective than sham or control treatments in reducing anxiety and the use of acupuncture in the management of drug withdrawal is still controversial. 4. Killeen, T. and Brady, K. (1997). A preliminary study of the effects of auricular acupuncture on alcohol and drug withdrawal symptoms. Substance Abuse, 18(3). The authors set out to evaluate the impact of auricular acupuncture in reducing stress in drug withdrawal patients. About 60 patients were covered by this paper with questionnaires used after initial treatment with acupuncture. Their rate of distress was measured. The authors were able to establish that there were statistically significant improvements seen on all measures for the subjects during the pre and post testing period. QUESTION 2 Literature Review Introduction Alternative and complementary medicine has long been part of our conventional medicine practice, especially in many parts of Asia and in the African region. For the West, their focus has always been on conventional and modern medicine and the adaptation of alternative therapies has not found widespread acceptance. There are various risks involved in the use of alternative and complementary medicine, especially as its applications are not supported by scientific studies and research. This paper shall establish a critical analysis of literature on acupuncture and its impact on drug withdrawal. This paper shall provide a critical analysis based on specific literature on the subject matter. First, an overview of the acupuncture shall be discussed, along with a general description of drug withdrawal. Secondly, an overview of available literature on the subject matter shall be presented. Thirdly, a critical analysis of gaps within these studies will be discussed. Lastly, a